Passive immunization is a vaccine containing antibodies.
Indication for passive immunization is the suspicion or the fact that there has been contact with dangerous pathogens. A serum with antibodies of animal, human or genetic origin is administered and immediately binds to the antigens of the pathogen. In contrast to active immunization, passive vaccination has a direct effect against the antigens, but it does not provide permanent protection. The antibodies themselves do not stimulate the formation of memory cells, so that the immune system cannot later train them independently. Once all of the injected antibodies have been bound to the antigens and broken down by the body, infection with the pathogen may occur again.
By the way: There are also antibodies (immunoglobulin A) in breast milk. In this way, infants receive a natural, passive immunization from their mother. Especially in the first months after birth, this is of enormous importance for the child with his still 'inexperienced' immune system.
Definition: Passive immunization is a vaccine containing antibodies. Indication for passive immunization is the suspicion or the fact that there has been contact with dangerous pathogens.
Humans form antibodies against a wide range of pathogens that enter the body - including the new coronavirus. Neutralizing antibodies play a special role. "The neutralizing antibodies practically patrol in front of the cell and intercept the virus so that it cannot enter the cell," explains virologist Brinkmann. Even after a patient has recovered, the antibodies remain in the blood for at least a while.
The formation of such antibodies is also the basis for the effect of most classical vaccinations. A clinically established method is to take antibodies from recovering people and give them to sufferers. In these, the antibodies can then fight the respective pathogen.
Is this the better Way?
Helper T-cells stimulate B-cells to make antibodies and help killer cells develop. Killer T-cells directly kill cells that have already been infected by a foreign invader. T-cells also use cytokines as messenger molecules to send chemical instructions to the rest of the immune system to ramp up its response.